Archive for the ‘English’ Category

The Maya observed the stillness of the Sun, which lasted for twenty full days, between December 11 and December 31. This is like the observation made by Pueblo Sun watchers, who will actually stay still and quiet while the Sun is still. When the Sun began to move, the Maya made a ceremony called the Jasaw Dance, of which I’ve written about (see an older post here).

If we were keeping record of Maya dates, today December 31, 2019, it would be 13 Baktun, 0 Katun, 6 Tun, 13 Winal and 12 Tun, which for short is written as This is the Long Count notation. The Calendar Round notation for the same date is 5 Eb’  0 Mol (see Figure 1). Observe that Tzolk’in date is 5 Eb’. Day Eb’ only occurs every twenty k’in or days, and when the year bearer is Eb’, then every beginning of month will be Eb’. We are currently running on year bearer 8 Eb’, which inaugurated the Haab or Maya year on August 13, 2019.


Fig. 1. Today’s date in Maya notation with the converter developed by the author.

What is interesting is that back in 735, the Dance of the Jasaw also happened when the year bearer was Eb’, and such consistency is only offered by the converter system I developed. See how today’s Maya date given by my converter relates to December 31, 2019 while today’s Maya date given by the conventional converter system called GMT (Goodman-Martinez-Thompson) relates to August 19, 2019. If, instead, we insert December 31, 2019 date, we get results for the LC and the Calendar Round that are not at all related to the Dance of Jasaw celebrated in Yaxchilan. This is the kind of aberration that the GMT system offers, and every Maya scholar using it is not being able to advance their work because of it.


Figure 2. Goodman-Martinez-Thompson converter.


Figure 3. Goodman-Martinez-Thompson converter.

If we were to celebrate the coming back of Sun’s moving days, we would always do them a day like today, December 31st; we wouldn’t be all over the year cycle, like the GMT correlation proposes Yaxchilan governors were doing. That is why it is so important to begin using the converter system I have proposed since 2013.



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I have just made a paper available for peer review. Anyone interested in struggles by intellectuals to perpetuate the scientific legacy of their ancestors in the midst of colonial imposition may read this paper. The case study is about how timekeeping tables were being crafted by the Maya to fit the establishment of the Spanish crown. Find it here: https://geraldineannpatrickencina.academia.edu/research#papers

The Title is:

2 Pop is always August 15. New Evidence of Syncretic Timekeeping and Cryptic Use of the Original Haab under Christian Imposition in Colonial Yucatán

The Abstract is:

Cognate texts of Códice Pérez and the Book of Chilam Balam of Kaua were comparatively analyzed under the premise that they present commensurable dates that relate to the original version of the haab. This original version has been recovered by the author through an independent procedure that focuses on the astronomical configuration of Venus and Moon at the opening and closing of 13 Bak’tun and the role of year bearers in keeping the haabcalibrated with the Sun when counting 365 k’ins, where k’insstart, alternatively, at sunrise, noon, sunset and midnight, in coordination with year bearers that respectively relate to the east (Kaban), north (Ik’), west (Manik), and south (Eb’) in the Tikal system (Classic period). The analysis of the two sources led to develop a conceptual framework that allows us to discern which calendar(s) was/were being used for any given date entry. Extrapolations with internally congruent dates from the Chilam Balams show (after leaving aside the forced canonical equation 1 Pop = 16 de julio) absolute agreement with the original calendar, where 2 Pop is always 15 de agosto. Another contribution of this paper is that it explains a syncretic system that was crafted in the Kaua manuscript to provide the auguries of Christian years with artificial year bearers located within the first trecena that occurred in the beginning of January for two full series of thirteen years (1796 – 1821). Additionally, it provides a full explanation of the use of 1 Kan and 12 enero for 1796 in the Table of Day Coefficients and presents a complete reading of the Table of Tun Endings and Haab Cycles, very different in rationale and scope from that provided by Bricker and Miram (2002). All dates were verified using the converter tool online in http://damixi.jl.serv.net.mx/test/gc.jsp


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El sistema calendárico original fue usado ampliamente en territorio maya desde el Preclásico hasta el Postclásico. La reconstrucción de todos los ciclos lograda en 2010 (ver Patrick, 2013) permite ofrecer este calendario para el ciclo 13 de agosto de 2017 – 12 de agosto de 2018. Este calendario está disponible para todos y todas a través del siguiente link.


The original calendar system was widely used in the Mayan territory from the Preclassic to the Postclassic periods. The reconstruction of all the cycles, which was achieved in 2010 (see Patrick, 2013), now provides this calendar for cycle August 13, 2017 – August 12, 2018. You can have a copy of this calendar through the following link.

JA’AB 2017-2018

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Shield Jaguar I from Yaxchilan carried out a Jasaw Chan dance on 19 Yaxk’in of year 735 AD (LC: That was December 30, which is known by Sun observers to be the last day of Sun’s stillness around solstice. In other words, the Sun’s apparent detention on its southernmost position on the horizon happens on December 20 and December 21, but its slow motion towards that detention occurs during the nine days prior to December 20, and its slow recovery pace occurs during the nine days after December 21. That time lapse is exactly twenty days long, i.e. from December 11 till December 30. It is a time for the observance of a Sun that has the character of a newborn creature. Its radiance, warmth and size are all qualities of the beginning of the Sun’s cycle. That is why the twenty-day long winal or month is called Yaxk’in. It means first Sun.

The Jasaw Chan dance practiced in eighth-century Yaxchilan was consistently related to the conclusion of the Sun’s still days on its southernmost region on the horizon so to begin its journey towards the north. Epigraphic texts on Stela 11 and Lintels 9 and 33, where Shield Jaguar is portrayed holding a flapstaff, show a verbal phrase that incorporates the verb ‘dance’ followed by a ti’ expression and variable element ja-sa-wa chan (Grube 1992), read as jasaw chan.

Chan means ‘sky’, whereas jasaw has the root jas and the suffix –aw which, in this case, derives an adjective from the verb jas (Looper 2003). In the Barrera Vazquez dictionary (1980) Looper finds the entry has muyal, which means “aclarar el tiempo quitándose las nubes” (the sky becomes clear as clouds go away). A similar term on the same page of the dictionary is haatsal muyal, meaning “aclararse el tiempo, descubrirse el sol cuando está el cielo nublado o está lloviendo”(the sky becomes clear, the Sun comes out when the sky is cloudy or it is raining). With some caution –because has sound is softer than jas– it may be proposed that Jasaw chan means ‘clear sky’, so the dance may have been celebrating this meteorological condition.

The relevance of the Jasaw Chan dance is shown by the fact that it was also carried out (and reported) five years later, on 19 Yaxk’in, by both Shield Jaguar I and his successor Bird Jaguar IV. It happened on December 30, 740 (LC: (see Figure 1), when the Sun’s position was exactly the same as when the dance was executed on 19 Yaxk’in, December 30, 735. Even more, Bird Jaguar made the same dance six years later, on December 30, 746 (LC: Again, the Sun’s position was exactly the same. The reader may wonder about the reiteration of the fact that 19 Yaxk’in kept happening on December 30 through a span of eleven years.


Figure 1. Shield Jaguar I and Bird Jaguar IV celebrating a Jasaw Chan dance to mark the completion of the Sun’s journey to the south and its last day of apparent stillness around December solstice. Image taken from Noble (2004).

According to the Goodman-Martinez-Thompson correlation, the dates of those three Jasaw dances did not occur on December 30, but rather on June 27, 26 and 25 respectively, about six months after the dates given here. The GMT correlation has that huge problem of producing dates impossible to link to any astronomical cycle. Dates as obvious as those of the Sun ceremonies (the Jasaw Chan dances) lag off from a solar reference when the researcher uses the GMT correlation.

For the Jasaw Chan dances mentioned above, the reader can convert the Long Count (LC) dates provided, in two applications. One is provided online by Famsi (Foundation for the Advancement of Mesoamerican Studies) under Resources and 2012 Phenomenon: http://research.famsi.org/date_mayaLC.php and the other converter is for the correlation I am offering: http://damixi.jl.serv.net.mx/test/. The reader can see and compare the dates obtained for the Long Count dates. Whereas the GMT correlation produces dates that do not enable us to sustain any thesis pertaining the Mayan’s capacity to keep in pace with the Sun’s yearly cycle, the GPE correlation that I offer (note 1) does sustain that thesis and also speaks highly of the rest of the Mayan’s astronomical observances regarding Mars, Jupiter, Venus, the Moon, eclipses and also seasons (note 2).

We have good evidence that the dance for clear skies –which additionally marked the conclusion of the Sun’s journey to the south– was also celebrated by the culturally and linguistically related Otomian group that was widely spread on the plateau of Central Mexico. The Otomian group was a culture that thrived far before the proto-Mayan peoples and which became contemporary with the first Mayance groups some four thousand years ago.

The Otomi twenty-day month during which the dance was executed was called Anthaxme, and it spanned between December 14 and January 3. The painted amate books (note 3) that remain and which show ceremonial practices on each month depict, for month Anthaxme, men holding flap staffs very alike those held by the Mayan. In the case of the Otomian ones, the flap staff banners were made with colored amate paper (Figure 2). According to Looper (2003), the Mayan flap staffs had “tubular fabric banners”.

The Mexica reproduced these December dances after they had settled in Otomian territory in the mid fourteenth century; they called the corresponding month Panquetzaliztli, which derives from pantli (banner), quetza (to rise) and liztli (verb suffix), meaning ‘flag rise’. Codex Borgia shows representatives from different regions participating in the dance (Figure 3). The month for this flag staff ritual spans from December 9 to December 28 in the Mexica calendar, whereas it spans from December 14 to January 3 in the Otomi calendar.


Figure 2. Reproduction of image from a calendar of Otomian-Mexica design, Codex Vaticanus A. The image shows a dancer of the banner or flap staff ceremony, celebrated around December solstice. The month was called Panquetzaliztli by the Mexica, which means ‘flap staff rise’.



Figure 3. Codex Borgia, p.33. Panquetzaliztli flap staff banner ceremony.

It is interesting to note that on the day after the end of Yaxk’in (i.e., after December 30), there entered a time of weather predictions. This means that, right after having celebrated ‘clear skies’, meteorological experts became involved in the observance of the weather, taking particular note of the clouds. That practice is still carried out by some Aj Men in some communities in Yucatan through January, and it is called Xoc k’in. The original weather forecasting was done during month Mol, that runs between December 31 and January 19. Mol may be alluding to rain deity Chaac Mol. The Otomi rain deity is called Muye by the Otomi. It is very interesting to note that the clouds are called muyal in Yukatek.

For the Otomi and Mexica, the corresponding month was called, respectively, Ancandehe (meaning water comes down) and Atemoztli (also meaning water comes down). Tradition among Otomian peoples in Mexico State is that we must see if four clouds form in a clear sky on the last day of December, and then we must watch for cloud formation and rains from the first days of January on. Their ancestors’ calendar shows the rain deity Muye actually coming down in a torrent of water on month Ancandehe (Figure 4).



Figure 4. Rain deity Muye (Otomi name) or Tlaloc (Mexica name) is depicted in Codex Telleriano-Remensis for Otomi month Ancandehe (from January 3 to 22) or Mexica month Atemoztli which spans between December 29 and January 17.

Everyone who has lived in Mexico knows that, despite the fact that the rainy season spans between mid May and mid October, when January enters, rain falls intermittently for some days or weeks and it helps lay out a neat prognostic of how the year will be like in terms of humidity, drought and rain. Farmers program their planting accordingly.

So all in all, we are identifying a pan-Mesoamerican knowledge that is rooted in deep history and which is still alive today. It tells us how the Sun’s culmination of its journey to the South brings clear skies. Also, it implicitly tells us that the Sun needs dancing ceremonies to accompany or celebrate its reactivation. More importantly, it is meteorological knowledge on how January rains have been used for at least over one thousand years to forecast the weather for the whole December solstice-December solstice cycle.

As we face the crude reality of climate crisis, many wonder if these ancestral practices are of any relevance. Traditional weather forecasters and timekeepers say that, in order to contribute to Earth’s recovery of harmony, it is necessary to continue with such ceremonies as much as possible.



  1. GPE Correlation has the author’s initials, Geraldine Patrick Encina.
  2. Bird Jaguar celebrated yet another flap staff ceremony much later, towards the end of his life. The LC date was (Lintel 9, Yaxchilan), and it happened not on 19 Yaxk’in but on the following day, Seating of Mol. The date was December 31, 767. This is 21 years after the last ceremony had taken place on year 746. In the GMT correlation, the solar date of the dance suffers a lag with respect to the solar date of the first same type of dance in Bird Jaguar’s lifetime. In contrast, the GPE correlation gives the same solar date over and over, no matter how many years have gone by. Such astronomical solidness is only offered by the GPE correlation.
  3. Amate is the paper made from Ficus sp. fiber by the Otomi peoples who are keepers of this millenary biocultural heritage.



Grube, Nikolai (1992). Classic Maya Dance. Evidence from Hieroglyphs and Iconography. Mesoamerica 3:201-208.

Noble Bardslay, Sandra. 2004(1994) “Rewriting History at Yaxchilán: Inaugural Art of Bird Jaguar IV” Originally published in Seventh Palenque Round Table, 1989, edited by Merle Greene Robertson and Virginia M. Fields. Electronic version. Pre-Columbian Art Research Institute, San Francisco.

Looper, Matthew  G. (2003) “The Meaning of the Maya Flapstaff Dance” In Glyph Dwellers, edited by Macri, Martha and Matthew G. Looper.


Further reading

Patrick, Geraldine (2013a). “Long Count in Function of the Haab and its Venus-Moon relation. Application in Chichen Itzá.” Translation of the original article and original article in Spanish on the link for Revista Digital Universitaria. Vol. 5 Num. 5.

Patrick, Geraldine (2013b). “Muye, el Tlaloc Otomi en los Códices. ¿Qué papel juega en las veintenas?” En Tlaloc ¿Qué? (accessible in Academia.edu).


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For English readers

For all those who are English readers and would like to learn further about my work, please go to the sidebar on your right and find heading CHICHEN ITZA. Click on Revista Digital de la UNAM, and go to EJEMPLARES. Click on number “4” to find all 2013 publications and scroll down to Number 5 (May 2013). There you will find my article related to Chichen Itza. Click on it and see how beneath Asbstract it says “English Version”. You can download the PDF in your computer.

Another way to go directly to the Article is with the following link. Again, click on “English Version” to downlad PDF.


Posts that are only in Spanish, will shortly be translated.


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Today is the main day announced by the Piedra del Sol. It is the last day of the Fifth Sun, on year 1 Flint. Venus, as Eagle Warrior, attacked the Moon, symbolically representing the completion of the Fifth Sun.

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We made an expedition to Cañada de La Virgen, near to San Miguel de Allende, Guanajuato, with colleagues from the Seminar of Archaeoastronomy of ENAH-UNAM. It is an old Otomian site, occupied since before 700 BC and until around AD 650. They built it to follow sky events, and particularly, to follow eclipses. On June 5th, on day 10 Lamat (10 Star in Yukatek Maya) –according to the correlation I have proposed since 2010– the morning was bright and clear, but at around 2pm clouds began to appear here and there, and kept gathering until we became quite worried. We began to set the equipment in place on the northern side of Complex B with a mixture of expectation and uneasiness, since a huge dark cloud was right in the way. All was set, and still cloudy until, at 4:16, the Sun’s rays began to peep out, and at 4:24 the spectacle began: the Sun was out in a clear sky and Venus was just coming in (contact II). A venusian breeze (Ik’) had told me minutes earlier it was about to come in action. And it did, majestically.


 Sun coming out just on time for our observation of Venus II Contact with the    solar disk.

We were all overwhelmed by the image that could only be seen with the help of an obscure lens, or by projecting the image on a white surface. When the Sun’s gleam was less strong, later on that afternoon, we obviously tried using the naked eye and experimented with all sorts of obsidian glass-pieces, but there is too much distortion and no possibility of discriminating the little black spot produced by Venus. So what can be preliminarily concluded is that the ancestral astronomers definitely knew that Venus was passing across the Sun every 584 days, and that it was not visible for this reason during 8 days, and could even calculate it being at the middle of its trajectory on day 4. But apparently they never knew whether a particular passage was more conspicuous than another, because it seems that there was no way that the naked eye could help identify a pattern regarding the way Venus moves in front of the Sun.

On this particular year 2012, occurring within years 13 Reed and 1 Flint as named by Otomian peoples, they did know that on day 4 Movement the Sun would threaten the Moon, making her time end 8 days after day 1 Rain** (a date carved on the Piedra del Sol stone meaning May 27, 2012)  i.e., on day 9 Deer, or June 4, 2012.   

On the day after 9 Deer (i.e., 10 Star/Rabbit, June 5, 2012) Venus would be halfway through its passage across the Sun’s face (right in the middle of the Piedra del Sol we see the expression of the Sun’s suffering due to this eclipse provoked by Venus, by Tezcatlipoca*) terminating the Fifth Sun’s cycle. However, this cycle is not only time-reckoned by the Sun, but also by the Moon and Venus, so the very last event that is directly related to the completion of the Fifth Sun is the one happening on December 11, 2012, as is explained next.

Indeed, both 4 Movement dates (March 26, 2012 and December 11, 2012) are denoting very specific Moon events, which have in common the fact that Venus is in close conjunction with crescent and waning moons, respectively. 

Venus in its evening aspect on the first date (March 26, 2012) is depicted on the stone as the Jaguar of the underworld, hence the claws on the left hand side of the Movement glyph close to the Death/Skull glyph of the ring of 20 day-signs.

On the second date December 11, 2012, Venus will be in its morning aspect which is symbolized by the Eagle, hence on the Otomian Piedra del Sol we see the claws on the right hand side of the Movement glyph in close proximity to the Eagle glyph of the ring of 20 day-signs.


Both Venusian events are announcements of eclipses, as can be reinforced thanks to Michael Closs’s work in Cognitive aspects of ancient Maya eclipse theory. A quote he gives of Redfield and Villa Rojas, 1962, is this: “one or two of the older men say that an animal like a tiger (sic, jaguar) seeks to devour the sun or the moon. That is what the ancients taught by carving on stones at Chichen Itza a disk representing the sun and two tigers coming to eat it”; another quote is: “The Chol linguistic data specify the jaguar as eclipse agent (where the jaguar refers to evening Venus). The clearest reference to a jaguar aspect of Venus in the ethnohistorical sources is found in the books of Chilam Balam of Ixil, Tizimin and Mani.”

The Jaguar (vespertine Venus) is the agent, the one causing the eclipse; it seeks to bite or devour. This means that what we have to look for is: Venus at the time of close proximity to the Moon -when the Moon is in its first couple of days of visibility in the West sky. This type of conjunction is astronomical knowledge that even Mapuche people know today (my notes, 2010).

What we have in the Piedra del Sol or the Otomian Stone is the result of a means to reckon the timing of the five big Moon-Venus-Sun cycles. The last event wrapping up the Fifth Sun, shall be Morning Venus in conjunction with a waning Moon on December 11, 2012. On this occasion eclipses will have already occurred on November 13, 2012 (solar) and November 28, 2012 (lunar).



Transit of Venus on June 5, 2012, approximately 5:16pm. Taken at Cañada de la Virgen site by Ricardo Moyano.



*Tezcatlipoca is the evening aspect of Venus.

**(All four dates are on the Piedra del Sol, and can be correlated to Gregorian dates only with the Correlation I propose, i.e.Otomian year 13 Reed = March 29 2011 – March 28 2012;  Otomian year 1 Flint = 29 March 2012 – 28 March 2013; day 4 Movement = March 26 2012 and 260 days later 4 Movement = December 11 2012; day 1 Rain = May 27, 2012 + 8 days = June 4, 2012; and May 27, 2012 + 9 days = June 5, 2012).

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The completion of 13 Bak’tun was considered by mid 20th Century mayanists as the closing of the Long Count by the Maya. But ever since the 1980s that supposition was turned down due to growing evidence regarding the continuation in the counting of the days after 13 Bak’tun on many monuments that advance into future time from 13 Bak’tun through to 14 Bak’tun (394.52 years later), and so on until 1 Pik’tun (i.e. 20 Bak’tun) -and more.
It is certainly true that the completion of 13 cycles of 144000 k’in (Bak’tun) is signficant because of what 13 (Uxlaju’n) represents in Maya Cosmovision: the highest level in the sky-world or heavens. So a special ritual featured by Bolon Yokte’ K’uh was in fact announced by Bahlam Ajaw, ruler of Tortuguero. For that ritual, no offerings and no catastrophe were predicted; rather, Bolon Yokte’ K’uh, a deity of transition that was also present at the time of Creation, was foretold to be bound by rope, so as to denote that the 13 Bak’tun cycle will have become completed and that the homerun for 1 Pik’tun shall have commenced. The 13 Bak’tun celebration is as important as celebrating the time when a boy turns to be a teenager at thirteen.
A misleading information complementary to the one referring to ‘the end of the Maya Long Count’ is the date on which 13 Bak’tun ends. This is because of the Goodman-Martinez-Thompson Correlation that prevails. But this correlation is in doubt because it does not explain the Eclipse Table of the Dresden Codex, the most important astronomic Maya almanac. It also provides no astronomic support for the supposed closing date of 13 Bak’tun: 21st December 2012, or 23rd December 2012.
The Correlation that I have presented here is consistent with the Eclipse Table and with the astronomic event described on p.52a of the Dresden Codex for the Creation Date and 8 days after: the first rising of vespertine Venus together with the Moon on the Western sky. In agreement with the cyclic logic, this same event will take place at the closing of 13 Bak’tun and 8 days after: May 3, 2013 and May 11, 2013 respectively.
The fact that May 3 is the closing date is extremely significant because May 3 is a typical orientation day of many monuments and pyramids that face the Western sky, such as the Feathered Serpent Pyramid in Teotihuacan. That date has been awaited ever since early Classic times. Certainly, the replication of the Creation event featured by Venus on its first days of visibility on the Western sky occurring next May 3, 2013 upon the closing of 13 Bak’tun, produced a great deal of expectation ever since the first or second century of present era. The expectation is connected to renewal, re-creation, evolution, and certainly not to a clear-cut-ending of time. Only linear-based models of time and space can speculate that such an ending can take place at some point. But Mayan (and Mesoamerican) Cosmovision is cyclic and multi-scale, meaning that from an indivisible cyclic time-space unit (the k’in -or day) greater cycles occur, all fractals of each other. That is how Vespertine Venus becomes protagonic not only at the time of Creation (when the three hearth stones were placed 5128 years and 280 days ago) but at the time of re-creation of that Creation.
In conclusion, Maya and other Mesoamerican civilizations were well aware that the cyclic articulation of astronomic events and numerical (and calendrical) records, was the best demonstration of their supreme achievement: to be able to perform world-order as perfectly as sky-order is performed by celestial bodies –the most sublime one being Venus. The rising of Venus as evening star denotes that it has obtained victory over the deities of the underworld. That is certainly a good omen.

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I have recently received communication from one of the authors of the paper ‘Correlation between the Mayan calendar and ours: Astronomy helps to answer why the most popular correlation (GMT) is wrong’, by J. Klokocˇn’ık, J. Kostelecky’, V. Böhm, B. Böhm, J. Vondra’k, and F. V’ıtek, published in Astronomische Nachrichten (2008). The proposal was to run my correlation with a list of dates obtained from the Dresden Codex. I have proceeded in doing so, as well as including relevant astronomical events according to the program Starry Night (MEADE). The results speak for themselves (Table 1, below). The most astonishing event is that occurred on 28th December 370, when Comet Levy pointed right down to Earth while in close proximity with the Moon.

    The Levy Comet was registered by Maya AstronomersFig. 1. Levy Comet in close proximity to the Moon on Long Count date 1 272 544, when the Böhm’s correlation finds a heliacal setting for Jupiter.

I am still waiting for my complete manuscript to be published, so in the meantime this is what I can say: my correlation is the correct one. The Böhm’s (622 261) correlation (1996, 1999, cited by Klokocˇn´ık et al., 2008) is lacking something absolutely fundamental: agreement with the ending of 13 Ajaw K’atun at the time the Spaniards arrived (Kelley’s criterion number 4 –Kelley 1976). This calendric concordance is key, because there is a clear reference to the exact date for a Tun ending on 13 Ajaw, which Morley (1920, cited by Thompson 1935:59) clearly showed must correspond to the ending of that 13 Ajaw K’atun, on the same 13 Ajaw 8 Xul annotated on page 66 of the Oxkutzkab manuscript. Thompson (1935:59) analyzed the colonial records and concluded that the ending of 13 Ajaw K’atun must have happened between mid November 1538 and mid November 1539, Julian date. In my correlation, the 13 Ajaw 8 Xul date registered in p.66 Oxkutzkab occured on 19th November 1539.

In contrast, the Böhm’s correlation is 104 years ahead of GMT, making it impossible for a given colonial date as important as that of p.66 of Oxkutzkab Chronicle, to fall in place. 

Finally, a historical reference which any correlation must agree with –although not mentioned by Kelley–, is one “which clearly has not been tampered with or altered by copyists (…) a Katun 3 Ahau was running its course when Fathers Orbita and Fuensalida reached Tayasal late in October of 1618”. Thompson (1935:59) added: “the fathers reached Tipu on their return from Tayasal five days after leaving the lake. Their arrival at Tipu was at the beginning of November, so the memorable conversation must have taken place near the end of October”. Precisely so, it was during that conversation that they were told that the K’atun 3 Ajaw had just commenced. With the correlation proposed in this paper, the beginning of K’atun 3 Ajaw (starting on 5 Ajaw 13 Sotz’ and ending on 3 Ajaw 18 K’ayab) was on 25th October, 1618 and it ended on 17th July, 1638. The correlation proposed by Thompson (1935), suggested the K’atun 3 Ajaw began on 20th September, 1618, which is evidently far earlier than the date (one near the end of October 1618) that he himself suggested based on common-sense and colonial data.

The main point that I am making is that any correlation proposed until now stands on the false premise that the Long Count is an expression of days counted along linear time, just as the Julian Day numbering system does. Such linearity obliges four quarter-days to become accumulated after four years, needing the inclusion of a bissextile day that must be counted. In contrast, my finding is that the Long Count system involves oriented Haabs according the orientation provided by the year-bearer, thus by implicitly including a quarter of a day by the turn of each year, the Haabs represent tropical years, so the mathematical form of a tropical year is 365, and not 365.2422.

With the epigraphic and ethnographic evidence I have found, the days contained in the Long Count system are in fact days determined by a Haab which represents a tropical year and whose numerical value (in corresponding oriented days) is 365.

For this reason, any Long Count inscribed in a stela or written on a Codex or on any other material, must be transformed into tropical years as follows:

  1. First, sum up the total number of oriented days expressed in Bak’tun (multiples of 144000), K’atun (x7200), Tun (x360), Winal (x20) and K’in (x1)
  2. Second, divide the total sum of oriented days by 365
  3. Third, mathematically understand that the result is immediately expressed as tropical years

This is of course anchored to the zero point date, which for a number proved astronomical and epigraphic reasons, is: 27th July -3116.

I now present Table 1 with the results of all LC dates integrated by Klokocˇn´ık et al.(2008), and correlated with the system I propose.

Table 1. Long Count dates correlated with two proposals and astronomical events

Page on Dresden Codex Long Count Phenomenon according to J. Klokocˇn´ık et al. Gregorian dates Phenomenon according to Correlation 583 172+LC(365)
D 24–29 1 366 560 full Moon 27 July 628 Conjunction Jupiter-Mercury
    Mercury west elong.    
  1 364 360 Venus heliacal rising 17 July 622 Conjunction

Mercury-Regulus-Venus (Saturn close-by)

    new Moon    
  1 397 640 Venus heliacal rising 20 September


Venus-Jupiter conjunction
  1 433 260 Venus heliacal rising 23 April 811 Mercury-Pleiades conjunction
    Mercury east elong    
  1 373 460 conjunct. Mercury–Venus–Jupiter 22 June 647 Saturn-Mercury conjunction
D 30–37 1 412 848 Solar eclipse 21 May 755 Jupiter and Mercury announcing eclipses; 12 Lamat day to anchor Eclipse intervals; new Moon.
  1 412 863 full Moon 5 June 755 Partial Moon eclipse
  1 412 878 new Moon 20 June 755 Annular solar eclipse
  1 412 893 full Moon 5 July 755 Full Moon on ecliptic
  1 412 908   20 July 755 Mars-Sun conjunction
  1 419 257 Solar eclipse 11 Dec 772 Saturn, Mars and Jupiter aligned in east, 9 days before partial Moon eclipse and 24 days before partial solar eclipse in 8 Kimi (death)
  1 420 290 Solar eclipse 10 Oct 775 heliacal setting Venus in east, heliacal setting of Saturn in west, 24 days before partial solar eclipse
  1 420 822 Solar eclipse 26 March 777 Jupiter, Venus, Mercury, Mars aligned in East, 21 days before partial solar eclipse
  1 421 855 Solar eclipse 23 January    780 Venus-Saturn conjunction; 7 days before Moon eclipse in conjunction with Mars; 21 days before partial solar eclipse
  1 424 808 Solar eclipse 25 Feb 788 Heliacal setting of Saturn in West, Pleiades in conjunction with Moon and 8 days before Moon eclipse and 21 days before Sun eclipse
D 37–38 1 426 360 conjunction Venus–Mars 28 May 792 Moon eclipsing Saturn, 3 days before partial solar eclipse
  1 426 109 conjunction Venus–Mars 19 Sept 791 Last visibility of Venus in east and last visibility of Mars in west
  1 386 580 conjunction Venus–Mars 2 Jun 683 Moon in conjunction with Jupiter
  1 386 069 maximum angle distance of Mars and Jupiter between two conjunctions 7 Jan 682 Conjunction Moon-Saturn
D 40–43 1 272 921 Jupiter heliacal rising 9 Jan 372 Total Moon Eclipse; Saturn in conjunction with Sun; Jupiter, heliacal rising
    Moon eclipse    
    Saturn heliacal rising    
    autumn equinox    
  1 272 465 Mercury 10 Oct 370


2 days before Moon, Jupiter and Mars in triad
    summer solstice west elong    
  1 272 544 Jupiter heliacal setting 28 Dec 370 Comet Levy in conjunction with Moon; Venus and Jupiter aligned in east; Saturn, conjunction with Sun; Mercury-Mars aligned in west
    Saturn heliacal rising    
  1 272 423 Mercury east elong 29 Aug 370 Pleiades in conjunction with Moon
  1 234 220 Jupiter heliacal setting 29 Dec 265 Jupiter, Venus and Mercury in triad in west; first visibility of Moon
  1 268 540 Jupiter heliacal setting 8 Jan 360 Venus close to Jupiter, Mercury aligned;
  1 268 523 Mercury west elong. 22 Dec 359 Venus close to Mercury in east, Jupiter in last visibility in west
  1 499 004 Mercury west elong. 6 Jun 991 Moon-Mars in west at dawn
  1 538 342 Saturn heliacal rising 16 mar 1099 Venus, Jupiter, Pleiades in triad in west
  1 486 923 Saturn heliacal rising 1 May 958 Last visibility of Mars in west, aligned with Venus and Jupiter
D 48–52 1 394 120 Venus heliacal setting 28 Jan 704 Last visibility of Mercury in west, aligned with Venus and Mars
  1 393 514 Mercury east elong. 1 Jun 702 Moon in conjunction with Saturn
  1 437 020 Mercury near west elong 11 Aug 821 Last visibility of Mars on west, first visibility of Moon, Max. elongation of morning Venus
  1 435 374 Mercury heliacal rising (?) 6 Feb 817 Jupiter in opposition with Saturn in morning, Moon close to Pleiades, prediction of next Saturn in first heliacal rising in conjunction with Moon
  1 567 332 Mercury east elong. yes 18 Aug 1178 Last visibility of morning Venus, Moon close to Pleiades, prediction of Solar eclipse occurring one month later, with Venus in first heliacal rising in conjunction with Moon
  1 520 654 Mercury heliacal rising 29 Sep 1050 Partial solar eclipse, with Venus and Mercury in proximity
  1 201 200 Mercury west elong. 12 Jul 175 Venus-Jupiter in east
  1 201 114 Mercury heliacal setting 12 Jan 178 Venus and Mercury close in west
  1 274 240 Mercury heliacal setting 21 Aug 375 Mercury, heliacal rising in west
  1 274 052 Mercury near east elong. 14 Feb 375 Jupiter and Venus in close proximity; Venus, max. elongation in west; Mars in proximity with new Maya Moon*
  1 541 852 Venus heliacal setting 27 Oct 1108 Mercury, heliacal setting in east, Jupiter-Moon conjunction
    Mercury heliacal setting    
  1 407 554 Venus heliacal setting 18 Nov 740 Mercury, heliacal rising in west aligned with Venus also rising
    Mercury heliacal setting    
  1 330 732 Mercury heliacal rising 30 May 530 Heliacal setting of Saturn and of Venus, both in conjunction
D 72–73 1 435 980 Mars shortly after oppos. with Sun 5 Oct 818 Venus, Mercury, Jupiter in triad disposition in east
D 74 1 278 390 max angle distance of Jupiter and Saturn between two conjunctions 3 Jan 387  
  1 307 510 max angle distance of Jupiter and Saturn between two conjunctions 15 Oct 466 Pleiades in conjunction with Moon
Temple cities        
Copan 1 415 637 summer solstice date 10 Jan 763 Full Moon-Mars announcing next Solar eclipse with Venus and Mercury in heliacal setting
Yaxchilan 1 407 601 summer solstice 4 Jan 741 5 days before Venus-Jupiter conjunction; 13 days after 22nd  Dec solstice
Quirigua 1 401 577 winter solstice


4 July 724 13 days after 22nd June solstice; new Maya Moon*, in opposition with Saturn
Piedras Negras 1 379 662 winter solstice


19 June 664 Summer solstice; full Moon close to Saturn

 *The term ‘new Maya Moon’ refers to the first visibility of the Moon in the west.

Note: Julian dates can be obtained with the following equation:                                X = year x 10 /1582, where X = days to subtract from the Gregorian date.


In pages D30-37, while there is absolute match in the second and third Dresden opening dates of the Eclipse Table.

 The Levy event is of course, spectacular, and I wonder if there is a particular glyph that could be suspiciously be making reference to such a happening.

A lot more can be analysed from the results obtained, but I hope this is sufficient to begin an interesting discussion.



Kelley, D.H., 1976.  Deciphering the Maya Script. Austin and London: University of Texas Press.

 Klokocˇn’ık J., J. Kostelecky’, V. Böhm, B. Böhm, J. Vondra’k, and F. V’ıtek (2008) “Astronomy helps to answer why the most popular correlation (GMT) is wrong”. Astronomische Nachrichten (2008). Astron. Nachr. / AN 329, No. 4, 426–436 (2008) / DOI 10.1002/asna.200710892.

Thompson, E., 1935  “Maya Chronology: the Correlation Question”. Contributions to American Archaeology, Vol. 14, pp. 53-104.

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My findings are thanks to a totally new insight to the Long Count of days, which also requires putting an end to the interpretation that the Haab is an imprecise instrument that lags one day every four years.

The Correlation I propose does not require the Julian-day counting system –as do all other correlations proposed until now. This Western approach obeys the linear logic of time which elapses from mid-day to mid-day ever since 1st January 4713 BC, something that has lead to so much trouble in our understanding of Mayan conception of time-space order and cycles. While in the linear logic there is an accumulation of bissextile or leap days every four years, in the cyclic logic the quarter days are symbolically considered, but not mathematically.

The internal structure of Correlation 583 172 + LC(365), as opposed to the Goodman-Martinez-Thompson Correlation, provides a final solution to the century-old problem. In effect, it accounts for more things, and better, than the GMT, or Lounsbury’s.

Correlation 583 172 + LC(365)  provides a new Zero-point date (27th July -3116), and a new closing date for 13 Bak’tun (3rd May 2013) -both dates associated to first visibility of vespertine Venus.

It also recovers the convention of fixed winal intervals with 0 Pop perpetually linked to 13th August -something that I am certain many Archaeoastronomers will be very pleased to hear.

The Correlation I obtained enables us to find the three opening eclipse dates of the Eclipse Table on the Dresden Codex, among many other highly relevant astronomic events (such as an astronomical interpretation for Star War events).

Of course, the 583 172 + LC(365) Correlation finely correlates colonial registrations such as that provided on p.66 of the Chronicle of Oxkutzcab for 13 Ajaw 8 Xul, which falls on 19th November 1539 (Julian Calendar), a date in perfect agreement with Thompson’s (1935:61) rigorous statement emphasizing that Katun 13 Ajaw ended “between the middle of November 1538 and the middle of November 1539”.

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